CTF

TryHackme Write Up – c4ptur3-th3-fl4g

Merhaba. Bu yazımda TryHackMe üzerinde yer alan c4ptur3-th3-fl4g isimli CTF çözümünü yapacağım. TryHackMe üzerinde yer alan çözmesi zevkli CTF‘lerden olan c4ptur3-th3-fl4g, genellikle cryptography, steganography gibi veri şifreleme ve gizleme metotları ile alakalı sorulardan oluşmaktadır.

Task 1 | Translation & Shifting

İlk soruda leet encryption ile alakalı şifreli bir metin verilmektedir.

c4n y0u c4p7u23 7h3 f149?
can you capture the flag?

İkinci soruda ise bize bir binary kod verilmekte online çeviriciler ile decode ederek çözümü yapabiliriz.

01101100 01100101 01110100 01110011 00100000 01110100 01110010 01111001 00100000 01110011 01101111 01101101 01100101 00100000 01100010 01101001 01101110 01100001 01110010 01111001 00100000 01101111 01110101 01110100 00100001
lets try some binary out!

Üçüncü soruda base32 ile şifrelenmiş bir metin bulunmakta. Bu metini terminal üzerinden rahatlıkla decode edebiliriz.

MJQXGZJTGIQGS4ZAON2XAZLSEBRW63LNN5XCA2LOEBBVIRRHOM======
base32 is super common in CTF's

Dördüncü soruda bu sefer bizi base64 ile şifrelenmiş bir metin karşılamakta. Bu metini de terminal üzerinden kolaylıkla decode edebiliriz.

RWFjaCBCYXNlNjQgZGlnaXQgcmVwcmVzZW50cyBleGFjdGx5IDYgYml0cyBvZiBkYXRhLg==
Each Base64 digit represents exactly 6 bits of data.

Beşinci soruda hexadecimal olarak şifrelenmiş bir metin yer almakta. Online olarak decode edebiliriz.

68 65 78 61 64 65 63 69 6d 61 6c 20 6f 72 20 62 61 73 65 31 36 3f
hexadecimal or base16?

Altıncı soruda ROT13 ile şifrelenmiş bir metin yer almakta. ROT13 şifrelemesinde metin içerisindeki harfler belli bir sırayla kaydırılarak şifrelenme işlemi gerçekleştirilmektedir. Online olarak çözümünü yapabiliriz.

Ebgngr zr 13 cynprf!
Rotate me 13 places!

Yedinci soruda ROT47 ile şifrelenmiş bir veri yer almaktadır. ROT47’nin ROT13 ten farkı ise ROT13’e ek olarak yaygın sembolleri ve sayıları da metin içerisinde karıştırmaktadır. Online olarak çözümünü yapabiliriz.

*@F DA:? >6 C:89E C@F?5 323J C:89E C@F?5 Wcf E:>6DX
You spin me right round baby right round (47 times)

Sekizinci soruda mors alfabesi ile şifrelenmiş bir metin yer almaktadır. Çözümü online olarak yapılabilmektedir.

- . .-.. . -.-. --- -- -- ..- -. .. -.-. .- - .. --- -.

. -. -.-. --- -.. .. -. --.
telecommunication encoding

Dokuzuncu soruda verilen şifreli metini ASCII tablosuna bakarak çözebiliriz fakat online olarak daha kısa sürede çözümünü gerçekleştiriyoruz.

85 110 112 97 99 107 32 116 104 105 115 32 66 67 68
Unpack this BCD

Onuncu soruda ise oldukça uzun bir şifreli metin verilmiştir. Bu metini çözerken birkaç tane farklı şifrelemeyi birkaç adımda çözeceğiz.

İlk olarak base64 decode işlemi ile başlıyoruz bize verilen metin en başta base64 ile encode edilmiştir.

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----- ----- .---- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
----- .---- .---- ----- ----- ----- .---- .----
----- .---- .---- ----- ----- .---- ----- .----
----- ----- .---- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
----- .---- .---- ----- ----- ----- .---- .----
----- .---- .---- ----- ----- .---- ----- .----
----- ----- .---- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
----- .---- .---- ----- ----- ----- .---- .----
----- .---- .---- ----- ----- .---- ----- .----

Elde ettiğimiz mors alfabesini decode edelim.

011001100110010100100000011000000101111101100000001000000110000001100000011001010010000001100010011010000010000001100000011000000110010000100000011000100110000100100000011000000101111101101000001000000110100001100110001000000110000001011111011001100010000001100000010111110110000000100000011000100110000100100000011000000110000001100101001000000110000001011111011000110010000001100000010111110110010000100000011000000110000001100100001000000110001001100001001000000110100001100110001000000110001001100001001000000110100001100111001000000110000001011111011001000010000001100000011000000110010100100000011000100110000100100000011000000110000001100101001000000110000001100000011000110010000001100000010111110110010000100000011010000110100000100000011000000101111101100110001000000110000001011111011001000010000001100000010111110110000000100000011000000110000001100011001000000110001101100101001000000110001101100101001000000110001101100101

Mors alfabesini decode ettiğimizde elimize bir binary kod geçmektedir. Sıra onu decode etmeye geldi.

fe `_` ``e bh ``d ba `_h hf `_f `_` ba ``e `_c `_d ``d ba hf ba hg `_d ``e ba ``e ``c `_d hh `_f `_d `_` ``c ce ce ce

Binary kod decode işlemi sonrası ROT47 ile şifrelenmiş bir veri elde ediyoruz.

76 101 116 39 115 32 109 97 107 101 32 116 104 105 115 32 97 32 98 105 116 32 116 114 105 99 107 105 101 114 46 46 46

ROT47 decode işleminden sonra decimal karakterler karşımıza çıkmakta, hemen online olarak decode ederek şifreli metni elde edelim.

Let's make this a bit trickier...

Task 2 | Spectrograms

Spegtrogram Nedir ?

Spektrogram, bir sinyalin frekans spektrumunun zamanla değiştiği için görsel bir temsilidir. Bir ses sinyaline uygulandığında, spektrogramlara bazen sonografi, sesli posta veya ses şeması denir. Veriler 3D bir grafikte temsil edildiğinde, şelaleler olarak adlandırılabilir.

İlk soruda bize bir wav dosyası verilmektedir. Bu dosyayı indirerek gizli mesajı bulmamız gerekiyor. Bu soruyu çözerken ben yine online bir program kullanacağım fakat Sonic Visualizer gibi başka çeşitli programlar kullanılabilir. Ben bu çözüm için Spectrum Analyzer uygulamasını kullanacağım.

Verilen dosyayı analiz ettiğimizde mesajı elde ediyoruz.

Super Secret Message

Task 3 | Steganography

Steganografi Nedir ?

Steganografi, mesajı gömme yoluyla bilgiyi saklama sanatı ve bilimidir. Bu yaklaşım, bir nesnenin içerisine bir verinin gizlenmesi olarak da tanımlanabilir. Bu yaklaşımla ses, sayısal resimvideo görüntüleri üzerine veri saklanabilir. Görüntü dosyaları içerisine saklanacak veriler metin dosyası olabileceği gibi, herhangi bir görüntü içerisine gizlenmiş başka bir görüntü dosyası da olabilir. Bu yaklaşımda içine bilgi gizlenen ortama örtü verisi (cover-data), oluşan ortama da stego-metin (stego-text) veya stego-nesnesi (stego-object) denmektedir.

Steganografi de amaç, bir mesajın varlığını saklamak ve bir “covert channel (örtülü kanal)” yaratmaktır. Bu yüzden steganografi, amacı mesajın içeriğini saklamak olan kriptolojinin bir parçası olarak görülebilir. Bununla birlikte bu iki tekniği beraber kullanmakta mümkündür. Bunun için gizli mesaj önce encrypt edilir (şifrelenir), sonra steganografik yöntemlerle dijital bir verinin içerisine saklanabilir.

http://bilgisayarkavramlari.com/2009/06/05/steganografi-ve-lsb/

Soruda bize bir stegosteg.jpg isimli içinde gizlenmiş bir metin belgesi olan bir resim verilmekte.

Bu resimi Steghide aracı ile extract ederek metin dosyasına ulaşabiliriz.

steghide --extract -sf stegosteg.jpg

Resim içerisindeki metin belgesine ulaştıktan sonra “steganopayload2248.txt” isimli dosyayı okuyarak çözümünü yapıyoruz.

SpaghettiSteg

Task 4 | Security through obscurity

Soruda bize meme.jpg isimli bir resim dosyası verilmektedir.

Dosyayı biraz inceledikten sonra dosya içerisinde yer alan stringlere göz atıyorum.

strings meme.jpg

Stringlere göz attığımda en sonda iki tane mesaj yer almakta. Bu mesajlar bu iki sorunun çözümüdür.

hackerchat.png
AHH_YOU_FOUND_ME!

TryHackMe | c4ptur3-th3-fl4g çözümü bu kadardı. Başka CTF çözümlerinde ve yazılarda görüşmek üzere.

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